Is a very short wavelength, energy is a great deal of electromagnetic waves, x-ray wavelengths shorter than the wavelength of visible light (about 0.001~100 nm, medical applications of x-ray wavelengths around 0.001~0.1 nm range), photon energy larger than the visible light photon energy to tens of thousands of hundreds of thousands of times. Physical characteristics
1, the penetration. X-ray because of its short wavelength, high energy, as when the material, only part is absorbed by the substance, mostly through Atomic clearance through, showing a strong penetrating power. X-ray's ability to penetrate the material associated with the x-ray photon energy, shorter wavelength of x rays, photon energy larger, stronger penetration. X rays penetrating power and material density, by the difference in absorption of this nature can distinguish between different material densities.
2, ionization. When material exposure to x rays, can make the extranuclear electrons from ionization of atomic orbitals. By ionizing charge how much x-ray exposure can be determined, x-ray is made according to the principle of measuring instruments. In the presence of ionizing gas conducting; some substances can react; in vivo can be induced by a variety of biological effects.
3, fluorescence. Shorter x-ray wavelengths are not visible, but it is Platinum cyanide exposure to certain compounds such as phosphorus, barium, zinc cadmium sulfide, calcium tungstate, and so on, can cause fluorescence in the material (visible light or ultraviolet), the fluorescence intensity is proportional to the amount of x rays. This effect is the basis of x-ray applied perspective, use of the fluorescent screen can be made, x-rays through the body tissues when used as perspective images also can be made into intensifying screens, as photography enhance the film's emulsion.
4, heat effects. Material that absorbed most of the x-ray can be transformed into heat energy, increased body temperature.
5, reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction effects. These roles in the x-ray microscope, wavelength measurement and structural analysis of substances are applied.